Three on 6th by artestudio72 Link: http://ift.tt/1vYhuLJ
TPS Shadows 2/24
Norman Parkinson- Floating With Flowers, Dal Lake, Kashmir, India. British Vogue, 1956. (via)
Women of the Julio-Claudian dynasty:
(Top to bottom) Livia Augusta, Julia the Elder, Agrippina the Younger
LIVIA•AVGVSTA;Livia was the wife and advisor of Augustus. She was born in 58 BC and her father had fought against Augustus, then known as Octavian, during the civil wars that erupted after the assassination of Julius Caesar. A general pardon was issued when Augustus was victorious and she was introduced to him in 39 BC. Despite her being married and 6 months pregnant with her second child, Augustus immediately divorced his own wife Scribonia and either persuaded or forced Livia’s husband - Tiberius Claudius Nero - to divorce her and they were married in January 38 BC, mere months after their first meeting and remained so for 51 years. The untimely deaths of Augustus’ nephew Marcellus and grandsons Gauis and Lucius - obstacles to Tiberius’ accession - are often attributed to Livia. Tacitus and Cassius Dio even suggest that she played a role in the death of Augustus in AD 14. Upon her son’s accession her influence began to weaken. In AD 29 at 87 years of age she fell ill and died. She was stripped of all honours granted to her during her lifetime and her will was left unfulfilled. Her ashes were placed alongside Augustus’ in the Mausoleum of Augustus without the pomp or ceremony befitting her status. It was not until AD 42, during the reign of her grandson Claudius, that her honours were restored to her, she was deified (becoming Diva Augusta - the Divine Augusta) and her statue was erected alongside her husband’s in the Temple of Augustus. Her turbulent and eventful life is well documented by the historians of the time. A dignified, proud and intelligent woman, she deeply influenced Augustus’ policies throughout his reign and helped him establish his dynasty.
IVLIA•AVGVSTI•FILIA;Julia the Elder, known by her contemporaries as Julia Augusta Filia, was the daughter and only biological child of the emperor Augustus. Her mother was Augustus’ first wife, Scribonia, whom he divorced for Livia on the day that Julia was born. Julia and her father were never close and it is documented that he often called her his “cancer”. Her first marriage took place in 25 BC when she was just 14 years old. She was married to Marcellus, her cousin and Augustus’ heir. Upon his death in 23 BC, Julia was remarried to her father’s best friend Marcus Agrippa who was 25 years her senior. Their marriage took place in 21 BC and resulted in 5 children. Augustus arranged the marriage after being advised by one Maecenas that Agrippa’s power had grown to such levels that he must either be slain or brought into the family. Of their 5 children, 3 died during Julia’s lifetime; two of them - Lucius and Gaius died during Augustus’s reign and one - Agrippa Postumus - was exiled by Augustus and killed at the beginning of Tiberius’ reign. Her daughter Agrippina the Elder was the mother of the future emperor Caligula and the grandmother of the future emperor Nero. Upon Agrippa’s death in 12 BC Julia was married once again, this time to her step brother and future emperor Tiberius. The couple deeply disliked each other, lived separately and had no children. In 2 BC Augustus brought charges of adultery and treason against her and she was exiled to Pandateria alongside her mother Scribonia. She spent 5 years there and upon any mention of her or her mother Augustus would recite the Illiad; “Never to have married, and childless to have died!”. Julia’s death came about soon after Augustus’ death, with no sons or her father to protect her she was left wholly at the mercy of Tiberius. She starved to death in exile in AD 14. Her ashes were prevented from being buried alongside her family in the Mausoleum of Augustus by Augustus’ will.
IVLIA•AGRIPPINA•MINOR;One of the most prominent and well remembered women of the Julio-Claudian family, Agrippina the Younger was the great grand daughter of Augustus, the sister of Caligula, the wife and niece of Claudius and the mother of Nero. She was born to Agrippina the Elder and Germanicus in AD 14. At 13 years old, in 28 AD Agrippina married her first husband, a distant relative to the Julio-Claudian family, Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus to whom she bore her only biological child, the future emperor Nero. Upon Tiberius’ death in 37 AD, her only surviving brother - Caligula - became emperor. Caligula gave his sisters unprecedented privileges. The sources suggest that he sexually assaulted Drusilla and Livilla, but details of his relationship with Agrippina are obscure. As Caligula’s reign deteriorated in to a reign of terror, his surviving sisters became the focus of his attacks. In 39 AD Livilla, Agrippina and a man named Marcus Lepidus were accused of treason. Accused of plotting Caligula’s murder Livilla and Agrippina were exiled to the Pontine Islands. After Caligula’s assassination and Claudius’ accession in 41 AD, Livilla and Agrippina returned to Rome. In 49 AD Agrippina married Claudius in a bid to place her son on the throne. She successfully convinced Claudius to name Nero as joint heir to his own son Britannicus and the sources of the period suggest that it was she who poisoned him in 54 AD to hurry Nero’s accession. During the early parts of Nero’s reign Agrippina exercised genuine power in the government of Rome. This lead to a power struggle, which culminated in several assassination attempts on Nero’s part. Cassius Dio claims that his final attempt was a self-sinking boat which automatically collapsed in open water with Agrippina aboard it. She, however, managed to swim to shore where assassins sent by Nero awaited her, her final words were “smite my womb”, wishing for it to be the first part of her body to be destroyed as it had let her give birth to such an “abominable son”, she died aged 43 in AD 59. The guilt of his mother’s murder stayed with Nero till the end of his own life and is attributed as one of the contributing factors for his downward spiral into the complete savage cruelty and depravity with which he ruled Rome during the remainder of his reign.
We just learned that my cat has developed type 2 diabetes.
This is one of those ideas where some person was like “Hehe, this might be silly.” And then struck fucking gold.
Greek Gold Olive Wreath, 4th Century BC
A wreath made from wild olive branches, also known as kotinos, was the prize for the winner at the ancient Olympic Games. According to Pausanias, the sacred olive tree at Olympia, from which the champion’s wreaths were made, came from the land of the Hyporboreans. It was brought to Olympia by Herakles and planted near the temple dedicated to his father, Zeus, in his honor. Legend says that it was Iphitos who first used a crown of wild olive leaves from sacred tree, called the kallistephanos, to crown victors at the Olympic games.
Olive wreaths were also made for the champions of the Panathenaic Games in Athens. Mythology says that these wreaths were made from the sacred olive tree that grew from where Athena struck her spear on the ground at the Acropolis. For the ancient Greeks, the olive tree was a symbol of peace, wisdom and triumph.
Gold wreaths were made imitating their natural counterparts in various forms, including oak, olive, ivy, vine, laurel and myrtle. Most of these trees or plants have associations with various deities. Because of their fragility, gold wreaths were probably not meant to be worn very often, only during special functions. They were also dedicated to the gods in sanctuaries and placed in graves as funerary offerings for wealthy or important people. Though they were known in earlier periods, gold wreaths became much more popular in the Hellenistic age, probably due to the greatly increased availability of gold in the Greek world following the conquests of Alexander the Great.
Herodotus describes the following story which is relevant to the olive wreath. Xerxes was interrogating some Arcadians after the Battle of Thermopylae. He inquired why there were so few Greek men defending the Thermopylae. The answer was “All other men are participating in the Olympic Games”. And when asked “What is the prize for the winner?”, “An olive-wreath” came the answer. Then Tigranes, one of his generals uttered: “Good heavens! Mardonius, what kind of men are these against whom you have brought us to fight? Men who do not compete for possessions, but for virtue.”
HISTORY MEME | 1/10 moments: Jadwiga is Crowned King of Poland.
The coronation ceremony that took place in the Wawel Cathedral in Krakow on 16 October 1384 was truly a splendid event: Polish nobles spared no expenses and the grandeur of the coronation impressed everyone present. But the historical significance was even greater. For one thing, the young girl who was being crowned (only 11 years old at the time) was to go down in history as one of Poland’s greatest and most beloved Monarchs. And for another, the aforementioned lady was crowned not as Queen of Poland (as would be expected considering her gender) but as King.
There is no humorous tale of a mix-up: the decision was made for quite practical reasons. Polish law was very specific that the ruler had to be King – but it did not state the King had to be a male. And so instead of re-writing the law and to emphasise the fact Jadwiga was a ruler in her own right, it was decided she should be crowned as Hedvig Rex Poloniæ (Hedwig, King of Poland) and not Hedvig Regina Poloniæ (Hedwig, Queen of Poland).
Woke up at 7 because of the tornado warning and had to have a not so fun basement pajama party.
Been walking in the pooring rain with my sprained ankle in wet canvas shoes because boots don’t fit with a brace.
But on the bright side, the dining hall has tangerines for the first time, and so I smuggled out 3 of them.
The destroyed old city Wanzhou, China
Just in case anyone thought this was legit. This is fake and also made up and not real.
I fucking quit
i hate art
"where’s your homework"
Art is weird…it’s not /that/ weird. Learn more about it…with The Art Assignment.
Yeah, just to be clear, this post is fake. To quote my brother, “It is amazing to me that fine art is so misunderstood and opaque and seemingly disconnected from reality that people think it’s possible to sell nothing for a million dollars. Especially when in fact art is deeply tied to and influenced by culture…it reflects and defines culture and is vibrant and wise and has depth and beauty. And it includes all of the stunning creations we reblog here on Tumblr all the time.”
I think the art world is partly to blame for this, because it too often operates in a bubble and cultivates its elitism, when really the ideas and aesthetics that fuel contemporary art, as I hope we’re showing with the art assignment, are tremendously relevant to contemporary life.
So the whole “Modern art sucks” narrative (by which people usually mean contemporary art) is, like my recent Batman diss, totally unfair and oversimplified, but it also seems like a reasonable intellectual position to take given the way that the world of contemporary art usually presents itself to people who don’t spend a lot of time with contemporary art.
Anyway, this whole problem is what inspired Sarah to create The Art Assignment in the first place.